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Foreclosure Laws for Individual U.S. States

We are providing information about state foreclosure laws. This information is designed to help you understand the process in each state. However, legal information is not legal advice. We are not giving legal advice. The laws of every state are different and frequently change. If necessary, seek legal or professional advice according to your situation.

We have elected to summarize each state’s laws. For a more in-depth analysis of Foreclosure Laws of Individual United States, please visit the state’s website for a full text of the law.

CAUTION: Information on the Internet for the most part is incorrect! Many sites that are publicizing Foreclosure Laws have incorrect information. We went through lengthy and timely research to bring you the most up-to-date and correct information available.

MORTGAGE AND DEED OF TRUST STATES

Below you will find each state according to whether they are Mortgage, Deed of Trust or both.

Mortgage States

Alabama Louisiana North Dakota
Arkansas Maine Ohio
Connecticut Massachusetts Oregon
Delaware Michigan Pennsylvania
Florida Minnesota Rhode Island
Hawaii New Hampshire South Carolina
Indiana New Jersey Vermont
Kansas New Mexico Wisconsin
New York

Deed of Trust States

Alaska Mississippi North Carolina
Arizona Missouri Virginia
California Nevada Washington, DC


States that use both Deeds of Trust and Mortgages

Colorado Montana Texas
Idaho Nebraska Utah
Illinois Oklahoma Wyoming
Iowa Oregon Washington
Maryland Tennessee Georgia
West Virginia Kentucky

FORECLOSURE SUMMARIES

The following summaries give some information on individual state foreclosure laws. Timelines will vary depending on specific circumstances and each situation. The timelines noted within are based on uncontested actions and assume no delays. They give the time for the sale, then the running totals for various procedures, until the end, when the longest time possible for the entire foreclosure process ends. Often, these times are longer than normal in that redemption doesn’t often occur. However, delays do -- so keep this in mind -- every foreclosure is a unique situation, timelines will vary from foreclosure to foreclosure, and from state-to-state. All foreclosures must be conducted under GSE guidelines.

Alabama Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 49-73 days – sale held; 30 - 60 days if NOD is not required.
• Right of Redemption: Yes (12 months)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Alaska Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 105-108 days – sale held; 108-111 deed recorded
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Arizona Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 115 days (non-judicial)
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Arkansas Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes, most circumstances
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 90 days
• Right of Redemption: Ends at sale
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

California Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 120 days
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Colorado Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usual)
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 91 days – sale held; 166 redemption expires; 173 deed recorded
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Connecticut Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 90 days – default entered; 180 redemption expires
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

D.C. (Washington District of Columbia)
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust
• Timeline: 47 days – sale held; 48 deed sent for recording;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

Delaware Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 170-210 days – sale held; 200-300 confirmation of sale;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No

Florida Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 135 days – sale held; 150 certificate of title issued;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Georgia Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usual)
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 37 days sale held; 48 deed sent for recording;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Hawaii Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline (JF): 220 days – auction; 260 confirmation; 320 conveyance;
• Timeline (NJ): 160 days – auction; 195 conveyance;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Idaho Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust
• Timeline: 150 days – sale held; deed recorded
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Illinois Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 300 days – sale held; 345 redemption period expires; deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Indiana Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 251 days – sale held; 266 redemption period expires; deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Iowa Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 160 days – sale held; 180 redemption period expires; deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
 

Kansas Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 130 days – sale held; 210 – 495 redemption period expires; 230 – 515 file closed;
• Right of Redemption: Yes (3 to 12 months)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Kentucky Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 147 days – sale held; 177 sale confirmation; 198 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Louisiana Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (Executory and Ordinary Process)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline (EP): 180 days – sale held; 209 deed recorded;
• Timeline (OP): 240 days – sale held; 269 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Maine Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 240 days – sale held; 270 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Maryland Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 46 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

Massachusetts Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 75 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Michigan Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 60 days – sale held; 90 – 425 redemption expires, deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes (6 months is common)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Minnesota Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 90 – 100 days – sale held; 270-280 redemption expires;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Mississippi Foreclosure Laws
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 90 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Missouri Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 60 days – sale held; 61-65 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes ( rare and difficult)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Montana Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 150 days – sale held; 153 deed recorded; 163 possession transferred;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Nebraska Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline (JF): 142 days – sale held; 176 deed recorded;
• Timeline (NJ): 111 days – sale held; 121 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Judicial 30 days; Non-judicial – no;
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Nevada Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline (NJ): 116 days – sale held; 118 trustee’s deed upon sale recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

New Hampshire Foreclosure
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 59 days – sale held; 75 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

New Jersey Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 270 days – sale held; 280 deed recorded; 290
• Right of Redemption: Yes (10 days)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

New Mexico Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
• Timeline: 180 days – sale held; 195 deed recorded; 225 redemption expires;
• Right of Redemption: Yes (30 days)
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

New York Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline (New York City): 445 days – sale held;
• Timeline (Outside the City):335 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

North Carolina Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 110 days – sale held; 120 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

North Dakota Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usually)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 150 days – entry of judgment to sale;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

Ohio Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 217 days – sale held; until redemption expires and deed is recorded depends on county;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

Oklahoma Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usually)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 156 days – sale held; 186 sale confirmed; 201 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Oregon Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usually)
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 150 days – sale held; 160 trustee’s deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Rare
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Pennsylvania Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 270 days – sale held; 300 redemption expires and deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Rhode Island Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 74 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

South Carolina Foreclosure
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
• Timeline: 150 days – sale complete; 180 redemption expires and deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

South Dakota Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (Rare)
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 150 days – sale held; 340 redemption expires and deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Tennessee Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (very rare)
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 40-45 days – sale held; 50-55 deed recorded
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

Texas Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Home Equity Loan
• Timeline: 97 days – sale held; 102 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Utah Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instrument: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 138 days – sale held; 139 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Vermont Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 95 days – default judgment enters; 275 redemption expires and deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
http://vermont.gov/

Virginia Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 45 days – sale held; 60 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Washington Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 135 days – sale held; 140-150 deed recorded
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Washington D.C. Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust
• Timeline: 47 days – sale held; 48 deed sent for recording;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes

West Virginia Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 60-90 days – sale held; 120 deed recorded;
• Right of Redemption: No
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Wisconsin Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 290 days – sale held; 300 confirmation of sale; 305 deed recorded; 315 final title;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
 

Wyoming Foreclosure Law
• Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
• Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
• Timeline: 60 days – sale held;
• Right of Redemption: Yes
• Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No


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